Phonetic spelling of accenture Ac-cen-ture. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'accentuate. Comments regarding accenture Post. Ensure that a microphone is installed and that microphone settings are configured correctly. Which is vs cognizant right way to say the number quinhentos in Portuguese? Need even more definitions? Its headquarters is located in Dublin, Ireland.
Heskey, C. Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid is inversely associated with insulin resistance in adults Am J Clin Nutr. Comparison of polyphenol intakes according to distinct dietary patterns and food sources in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort Br J Nutr. Holland, K. Ford, P. Tonstad, S. The association between soya consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in the Adventist Health Study-2 Public Health Nutr.
Penniecook-Sawyers, J. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population Br J Nutr. Fraser, G. Lousuebsakul-Matthews, V. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?
Am J Clin Nutr. Reinert, K. Holt, M. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation J Health Psychol. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future Am J Clin Nutr. Soret, S. Climate change mitigation and health effects of varied dietary patterns in real-life settings throughout North America Am J Clin Nutr. Serrano, S.
Mediterranean diet and emotion regulation Med J Nutrition Metab. Hemmy Asamsama, O. Bidirectional longitudinal study of type 2 diabetes and depression symptoms in black and white church going adults J Diabetes Metab Disord. Singh, P. Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable disease in Asian Indians Am J Clin Nutr. Orlich, M. Cohen, S. Teixeira Martins, M. Octaviana Hemmy Asamsama; Jerry W. Lee; Kelly R. The American journal of clinical nutrition.
Prevalence of hyperthyroidism according to type of vegetarian diet Public Health Nutr. Przekop, Peter; Haviland, Mark G. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts Nutrients. BMC medical research methodology. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2 Public Health Nutr.
Public health nutrition. International journal of women's health. Japas, C. Body mass index gain between ages 20 and 40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages years: the Adventist Health Study-2 Obes Res Clin Pract. PloS one. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences.
Journal of women's health The adventist health study Journal of Cancer. JAMA internal medicine. European journal of epidemiology. Kyulo, N. Long term weight variability in adults of Adventist Health Study 1 and 2 Dr. Annals of epidemiology. Relationship of vitamin D levels to blood pressure in a biethnic population Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Vegans and lactoovovegetarians were considered together as vegetarians because of the small number of vegans; pescovegetarians and semivegetarians were considered together as semivegetarians because of the small numbers in both categories.
Logistic regression model, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary energy. Logistic regression model, adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, physical activity, education, income, sleep, television watching, smoking, and alcohol consumption 2-y follow-up.
Cox proportional hazards regression model, adjusted for age, race, family history of cancer, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, age at menarche, pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, and menopausal status 4. Cox proportional hazards regression model, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, exercise, personal income, educational level, marital status, alcohol, geographic region, menopause in women , and hormone therapy in postmenopausal women 5.
After adjustment for age, sex, and race, mean BMIs were Diets were considered in 3 categories: vegetarian vegan plus lactoovovegetarian , semivegetarian pescovegetarian plus semivegetarian , and nonvegetarian.
In ANCOVA analysis, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and dietary energy intake, significant differences between the dietary groups were found for all of the metabolic syndrome components except for HDL triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and glucose , with vegetarians having more favorable levels in each case.
Considering metabolic syndrome as a whole, the prevalence was Diets were considered in 4 categories: vegans, lactoovovegetarians, partial vegetarians pescovegetarians plus semivegetarians , and nonvegetarians. In a logistic regression analysis that controlled for age, sex, and exercise, the adjusted ORs of having hypertension were 0. Additional adjustment for BMI a possible causal intermediate attenuated the results to 0.
In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, education, and physical activity, the OR for prevalent hypertension among vegetarians vegans and lactoovovegetarians combined was 0. The relation of vegetarian diets to both prevalent and incident diabetes mellitus has been examined in AHS Prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 2.
In logistic regression analysis, compared with nonvegetarians, the multivariate adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, income, physical activity, television watching, sleep habits, alcohol use, and BMI ORs for prevalent type 2 diabetes were 0. Among 41, participants who did not report having diabetes mellitus at baseline, diabetes incidence was calculated from a response to a follow-up questionnaire at 2 y. The percentage who reported developing diabetes was 0. In multivariate adjusted for age, sex, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking, and BMI logistic regression analysis, ORs for developing diabetes compared with nonvegetarians were 0.
Similar analyses stratified by race found reductions in odds among blacks for the vegan 0. The relation of diet to osteoporosis risk is complex, and the scientific understanding of it is incomplete.
In particular, there is conflicting evidence with regard to the relation of protein intake particularly animal protein with bone density and fracture risk 13 — Thorpe et al 19 examined the relation of protein-rich foods of both animal and plant origin to the incidence of wrist fracture over 25 y among women who were participants in both the AHS-1 and AHS Higher consumption of protein-rich foods of both animal and plant origin was found to be protective.
In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, among those with the lowest consumption of animal protein vegetarians , those who consumed protein-rich plant foods more than once per day had an HR of 0. Dairy products are generally thought to be good sources of dietary protein and calcium, raising the concern that reduced dairy product consumption among vegetarians, particularly vegans, may increase the risk of osteoporosis. Many vegetarians and many nonvegetarians use soy milk or other types of milk substitutes to replace dairy consumption.
Matthews et al 20 examined whether soy milk consumption might confer similar benefits on bone health as dairy product consumption. These analyses come from a logistic regression model in which both soy milk consumption and dairy product consumption were included. Thus, soy milk appeared to be associated with improved bone health to a similar degree as dairy products, suggesting that it may provide a useful alternative to dairy in certain vegetarian diets. This finding may be related to the protein content of soy milk and, in the case of many fortified soy milks, the calcium content.
The protein content of unfortified soy milk is 3. Tantamango-Bartley et al 9 recently published an initial analysis of the association of dietary patterns with cancer incidence in AHS Because this was early follow-up, there was not yet sufficient power to analyze the effect on specific cancers.
However, interesting results were shown in analyses of all incident cancers and of cancers categorized by organ system. Among 69, participants included in the analysis, there were incident cancers.
In multivariate adjusted for age, race, family history of cancer, education, smoking, alcohol, age at menarche, pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and menopause status Cox proportional hazards regression analyses comparing all vegetarians combined vegans, lactoovovegetarians, pescovegetarians, and semivegetarians with nonvegetarians, significant reductions in risk were found for all cancers HR: 0.
When the 4 vegetarian groups were compared separately with the nonvegetarian referent group, reduced risk was found in vegans for all cancer HR: 0. A longevity advantage for those who consume vegetarian diets was previously shown in the AHS-1 cohort 12 , On the other hand, a reduction in all-cause mortality has not been associated with vegetarian dietary patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition—Oxford cohort Orlich et al 2 examined the possible association of vegetarian dietary patterns with all-cause mortality and broad categories of cause-specific mortality in AHS After a mean follow-up of 5.
For specific dietary patterns, the HRs were 0. Effects were stronger in men and less often significant in women. Apparent beneficial associations were seen in some cases for mortality from cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine diseases 2.
Because of its relatively large number of vegetarians, the AHS-2 is a valuable cohort for the study of the possible effects of vegetarian dietary patterns on various health outcomes. The initial published results, reviewed previously, show a number of apparent health benefits of vegetarian diets. Vegetarian diets in AHS-2 are associated with lower BMI values, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, lower prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus, and lower all-cause mortality.
Initial analyses also showed possible moderate reductions in the rates of certain cancer outcomes for some vegetarians. The bone health research presented here links inadequate protein amounts to an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures; however, it appears to show that plant sources of protein, like animal sources, decrease this risk.
As with all observational research, caution must be exercised in inferring causation from the results reviewed here. Although appropriate attempts at adjustment for possible confounders were made in each case, it remains possible that some uncontrolled confounding may explain all or part of these findings.
Measurement error is another challenge and potential source of bias in nutritional studies 24 , but this would seem less likely to affect analyses by broad dietary pattern than analyses according to the intake of specific foods or nutrients.
Although large, high-quality clinical trials examining the effects of vegetarian dietary patterns on major health outcomes have not been conducted as they have for the Mediterranean dietary pattern 25 , 26 , small interventional studies provide indirect support for some findings presented here, particularly in regard to reduced weight 27 — 32 , improvements in serum lipid concentrations 33 — 37 , and improvements in control of diabetes mellitus 27 , 38 , 39 with vegetarian diets.
The dietary patterns described here are defined according to the avoidance of certain foods of animal origin. However, the shown associations may not always be related to reduced animal product consumption.
They may also result from an increase in nutritional components related to plant foods, such as the increased fiber intake Table 2. There may also be considerable heterogeneity of food and nutrient consumption within each vegetarian-spectrum dietary pattern, as we have previously discussed 40 , so additional analyses by food, nutrient, or dietary indexes will be of value.
As with all diets, vegetarian diets should be carefully planned for nutritional adequacy. Nutrients of possible concern for vegetarian diets include vitamin B particularly for vegans , iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin D, and protein Rizzo et al 3 analyzed the nutrient profiles of the 5 dietary patterns described here in detail and reported considerable variation by diet pattern. In no cases were mean values of potentially marginal nutrients less adequate among vegetarians than among nonvegetarians, but some individuals in the tails of the distributions may have had inadequate intakes.
Although analysis by dietary pattern is advantageous in terms of real-world relevance and avoids many of the problems of reductionist models, a major disadvantage of this approach is its remoteness from specific mechanistic hypotheses. Various mechanisms, known and unknown, may link vegetarian dietary patterns to improved health outcomes, and a full discussion of these is beyond the scope of this brief review; however, we offer a few comments.
Adiposity is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome and an important risk factor for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. Thus, the stepwise increase in BMI values from vegan lowest to nonvegetarian highest presented here is noteworthy and may serve as an important intermediate in pathways of causation leading from dietary pattern to disease.
The reason for this BMI gradient is not well understood. Caloric intakes are similar among the 5 dietary pattern groups 3. Significant differences in BMI persist after control for both dietary energy intake and physical activity 7. Vegetarian diets may result in differences in energy absorption and utilization that lead to differences in BMI.
The results for diabetes mellitus reviewed here are interesting in that significant reductions in risk for vegetarians remained after BMI was controlled for. Some of this remaining effect may still be mediated by differences in adiposity not fully captured by BMI central adiposity, visceral adiposity ; however, mechanisms entirely independent of adiposity may also be in effect.
Differences in the intake of specific nutrients may mediate some of the effects of vegetarian dietary patterns. For example, vegetarians have higher intakes of potassium 3 , which is considered an important micronutrient for the prevention of hypertension. Tantamango-Bartley et al 9 provided a discussion of many possible mechanisms linking vegetarian dietary patterns to reduced cancer risk; in particular, they discussed the possibility that increased soy consumption among vegetarians could be relevant to their finding of a reduction in risk of female-specific cancers among vegans 9.
The primary aim of the AHS-2 is to investigate potential connections between dietary factors and the risk of specific cancers. To this end, we are attempting record linkages with the cancer registries of all 50 states and all Canadian provinces, something that, to our knowledge, has not previously been done.
This process is well advanced, and we anticipate important publications on the relation of diet to specific major cancers starting in We are hopeful that these ongoing and future analyses will add to our understanding of the relation of vegetarian dietary patterns to health and longevity. Neither of the authors declared a possible conflict of interest.
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Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am J Epidemiol ; : — 9. Does dietary protein reduce hip fracture risk in elders? The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int ; 22 1 : — 9. Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr ; 69 : — A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
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Loma Linda is one of five 'Blue Zones', small pockets around the world where people tend to live well into their 90s and even their s, which includes towns in Costa Rica, Greece, Italy and Bhutan.
Health is central to the Adventists' faith and they have strict rules on diet, exercise and rest. Adventists typically avoid meat and dairy products and follow a 'biblical diet', or the way that those who lived thousands of years ago ate.
It's a vegetarian diet consisting of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Their go-to-snack is nuts. Residents don't smoke, don't drink alcohol or caffeine - sticking only to water - and exercise regularly. They found that Adventists had 33 percent lower rates of death from any cause and 30 percent lower rates of all cancers combined.
When it came to specific cancers, Adventists had 30 percent lower rates of breast cancer, 16 percent lower rates of colorectal cancer, 50 percent lower rates of rectal cancer and 30 percent lower rates of lung cancer. The team then looked at early death rates and incidence of all cancers among black Adventists compared with to the general black population.
Black Adventists had 36 percent lower rates of early death and 22 percent lower rates of all cancers. Researchers say that although their findings don't specify why Adventists reap these health benefits, other studies have shown the benefits of a plant-based diet, suggesting the religious group has their high-veggie, low-meat diet to thank.
A plant-based diet lowers the risk of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, high cholesterol, heart disease and even certain cancers. So Adventists are religiously compelled eat more healthily than most people in the US do.
Comments 43 Share what you think. View all. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Here's how to make your money work harder for you this summer - so you can relax! Ad Feature Advertisement. Today's headlines Most Read Cadbury launches range of new 91 calorie chocolate bars Time-lapse maps show new Covid variant's rapid spread through England with strain Don't go cold turkey: Doctors are urged to wean millions of patients off antidepressants gradually to ease I've snored for years The 'key weapon' locked away in a Bangladesh lab could be the AHS-1 participants who had all of these factors had approximately a year longer life expectancy compared to those with none of these favorable factors.
This demonstrated that simple lifestyle factors were able to account for major differences in life expectancy. Navigation Adventist Mortality Study. Adventist Health Study-1 Findings for Cancer. Findings for Coronary Heart Disease.
Findings for Nuts. Findings for Longevity.
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